VLSI Design; 4-bit Up/Down Counter with Parallel Input

Last semester, I took a VLSI class. The class included a project and a written examination. The project was on VLSI Design (duh?) and, to be specific, we had to implement a 4-bit Up/Down Counter with Parallel Input from scratch. Yes, that means we designed our own gates from discrete transistors and built our final circuit one block at a time.

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TA7642 AM Radio

Back in the 60s, communications were not as widespread as they are today. People had the radio and some early form of the television, but this is a one-way information link. If they wanted to send a message across the globe, they had to use the expensive and unreliable telephone. This is why the hobby of Amateur Radio was then, what the Internet is today.

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